Mortar claddings made of piece materials have been used in construction for several centuries, but they are still relevant to this day, since they are an original and relatively affordable option for finishing rooms and external structures of buildings. Compared to other materials, ceramic or stone tiles have undeniable advantages for use: durability, practicality (easy to clean), absolute moisture resistance and the ability to use at low temperatures, long-term preservation of color saturation, environmental friendliness and hygiene of coatings.
In addition, complex relief patterns and overflows, shading make a real work of art from the finishing material.
The standard output of the 4th grade tiler-facing is about 4 m2 of walls and 10 m2 of floor for an eight-hour shift with an average complexity of laying.
Conditions for performing tiled works
Before performing work on facing with ceramic, cement sludge, glass tiles, natural or artificial stone, porcelain stoneware (gres) or mosaics, the following operations must be completed:
- installation of roofs, construction of walls and partitions;
- filling of window and door openings;
- installation of built-in furniture;
- execution of all types of waterproofing coatings;
- pouring screeds and self-leveling floors;
- laying of plumbing communications and electrical wiring;
- cleaning of ventilation ducts;
- sealing of furrows, grooves, technological holes.
A prerequisite for the production of tiled works is the achievement of the maximum load on the finished structures (walls, partitions, frame structures), but not less than 65% of the design. The ambient air temperature at the facility and the temperature of the bases must be at least + 10 ° С (from + 5 ° С for outdoor work), the relative humidity should not exceed 60%, this climatic regulation must be maintained 2 days before the start and 12 days after construction operations for laying tiles.
The moisture content of concrete coatings, plaster and putty layers, stone in accordance with regulatory documents is no more than 8%. The surface of the sub-bases to be faced excludes the presence of fatty, bituminous spots, mortar drips, corrosive elements, areas with residual dust. Efflorescence, mold, algae, fungus and other microorganisms are removed mechanically and treated with special antiseptic compounds. Paints and varnishes, dirt and sagging must be removed and cut with hammers, brushes or compressed air.
Crumbled, chalky substrates are also unacceptable; notches are applied to smooth substrates to enhance adhesion. Primers must cover the entire surface of the cladding, without gaps (check the continuity of treatment) and completely dry (from 4 hours for universal acrylate primers).
Composition of tiling works
According to the current regulatory documents, the main stages are distinguished:
- cleaning and repair of sub-bases. If there are chips, cracks, potholes and other defects on the bases, they must be pre-repaired with cement compounds (putty or plaster, tile adhesive, screed).
- priming of the coated surface. The primer is selected taking into account the type and type of substrate (absorbent (strong or weak), composition (mineral, gypsum, ceramic), adhesion (smooth, embossed)).
- marking of working areas. Horizontal lines are beaten off in level at the height of laying the second row of tiles, along the marks, load-bearing profiles are mounted to prevent the facings from sliding. Linear measurements are used to calculate the center line of each wall and perform it strictly vertically (using a plumb line or a laser level). In the future, the tiler will spread the tiles from this axis in opposite directions, to the corners of the room.
- sorting and calibration of tiles. Before gluing, porcelain stoneware (gres) must be stored for at least 24 hours in heated rooms to achieve a positive temperature. The dimensions of the tiles are checked manually, stacked in groups, samples with obvious defects are set aside separately and will be used for facing narrow areas. In parallel, check the color and tone of the facing products, the geometry of the application of patterns or designs. Requirements for the appearance of the tiles - the correct rectilinear contour, right angles, no cracks, chips, bulges; the glaze must be free from dripping, underfilling, air bubbles, foreign particles and debris.
- preparation of tile glue. The mass of the dry mixture declared by the manufacturer is closed with the amount of cool water indicated on the package, the solution is mixed with an electric mixer with a nozzle until it is homogeneous, without lumps. After 5 minutes, mix again to improve the properties and increase the viability of the finished solution (prevention of premature setting). The density is checked by a test application of glue with a toothed comb: the grooves should not be interrupted and blurred, but keep a clear shape.
- spreading glue on the base. Using a spatula, the solution is thrown in a layer of up to 3 mm and pulled with a comb at an angle in one direction, the excess is thrown back into the glue container. The size of the comb teeth is selected in accordance with the tile format and is indicated on the packaging of the adhesive. The grips are coated with a total area of up to 1 m2 to prevent the glue from drying out on the wall or floor.
- facing and laying tiles. Facing materials are placed on the walls from the second row in height, the stacking vector: from the center lines to the corners (horizon), from bottom to top (vertical). The tile is pressed tightly over the entire area, avoiding voids and partial coverage of the mortar, the seams are set in parallel using distance crosses. After the remnants of the glue are removed with a cloth, as the solution gains strength, the seams are cleaned with a special tool. Bonding of natural stone and other especially dense materials to vertical bases on a solution is allowed with a tile thickness of up to 10 mm.
- jointing of tile joints. A rubber spatula in a circular motion evenly fills the seams with a grout with water-repellent properties, after drying with a soft float, iron it, then wash the entire area with a sponge.
Quality control of tile works, permissible deviations
The conformity of construction products (in this case, lined surfaces) should be checked during direct production and at the end of work. Residues of mortar on the tiles, cracks, chips, scratches and serrated cuts, as well as flies (dots of various colors from sparks of cutting tools) are not allowed. The edges of the holes must be even and uniform, without chips or defects on the face of the tile.
The thickness of the cement and sand mortar is kept in the range from 7 to 15 mm, the polymer-mineral glue with modified additives - from 2 to 3 mm. According to SNB 1.03.05-04 "Finishing work", tile laying and jointing is accepted for delivery subject to the quality standards, which are indicated in the following table:
Selection of material
All adhesives are used based on their technological purpose, which is determined by the manufacturing plant.
The main features to consider when choosing a tile adhesive:
- wall / floor cladding;
- water absorption of tiles (gres \ ordinary ceramics \ glass);
- floors with water or electric heating;
- deformable (non-rigid) bases;
- brand of frost resistance;
- operating conditions of the linings (increased loads);
- format (dimensions) of tiles;
- type of tiles;
- heat resistance (stoves, fireplaces).
Fugu is purchased based on the width of the seam, protection against mold and mildew, elasticity, chemical resistance to aggressive substances.